In the SQL Server Management Studio, errors can be tracked down easily, using the built in Error List pane. This pane can be activated in the View menu, or by using shortcuts Ctrl+\ and Ctrl+E
The Error List pane displays syntax and semantic errors found in the query editor. To navigate directly to the SQL syntax error in the script editor, double-click the corresponding error displayed in the Error List
SQL Keyword errors
Misspelled terms that are reserved by the SQL query language for its commands and clauses are known as SQL keyword errors. This sort of mistake, for instance, results from writing “UPDTE” instead of “UPDATE.”
The word “TABLE” is misspelled in the following example:
The words around the word “TBLE,” as shown in the image above, are likewise highlighted. The graphic below demonstrates how one minor error results in several highlighted words.
In fact, 49 mistakes have been recorded overall, just because one term is misspelled.
What began as a small mistake becomes a much greater issue if the user attempts to fix all of these reported issues without locating the initial one.
It’s also conceivable that all of the SQL keywords are spelt correctly but that the sequence in which they are listed is incorrect. For instance, “FROM Table 1 SELECT *” will display a SQL syntax error message.
Arrangement of commands
The incorrect placement of keywords will undoubtedly result in a mistake, but the incorrect placement of instructions might also be problematic.
For instance, the user may use the following command to see whether there is already a schema with the same name before attempting to add a new one to an existing database.
However, even though each command is properly written, and is able to run separately without errors, in this form it results in an error
As the error message states, CREATE SCHEMA command has to be the first command that is given. The correct way of running this commands together looks like this
Using quotation marks
When developing SQL projects, it’s also typical to use double quotation marks rather than single ones. Strings are separated by single quote marks. For instance, this instance makes use of double quotation marks rather than single ones, which is incorrect.
Replacing quotation marks with the proper ones, resolves the error
There are times when using double quotation marks is necessary, such as when writing some generic quotations.
This will result in a mistake, as seen in the earlier example. Nevertheless, this does not exclude the usage of double quotations; they must only be used inside of single quotes. Nevertheless, using single quotes in this case won’t fix the issue; instead, it would create a new one.
Since there is an apostrophe inside this quote, it is mistakenly used as the end of a string. Everything beyond is considered to be an error
Apostrophes must be “escaped” in order to prevent them from being interpreted as string delimiters when used inside of strings. The following example illustrates how to “escape” an apostrophe by placing another one next to it.
Finding SQL syntax errors
While locating SQL syntax problems might be challenging, there are several suggestions that can help. The Error List stated above is quite helpful. It enables the user to verify the project for problems while they are being written, avoiding the need to subsequently look through hundreds of lines of code.
Another method to help is to format the code correctly.
This can improve code readability, thus making the search for errors easier
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